Archive for September, 2010|Monthly archive page

Beware of 100-Calorie Packs

…especially if you diet. That’s the findings of a study published in The Journal of Consumer Research.

You’ve seen 100-calorie packs in the grocery store, convenience markets and vending machines. It seems like all snacks foods are available in them. 100-calorie packs made their way into the marketplace in 2004 and peaked in 2008 when 190 new 100-calorie pack foods entered the marketplace. Their numbers are dwindling a bit now, maybe due to the recession or maybe due to less interest in portion-control products. It could be that consumers heard about this study!

Researchers at Arizona State University wondered if the smaller packs were helping people control their calorie intake, the original marketing strategy behind 100-calorie packs.

How did consumers in the study react to the mini-packs? There was no single answer. It turned out that each person’s response hinged on his or her relationship with body weight and food.  To appreciate the findings, it is helpful to know what is meant by a couple of terms:

A restrained eater is someone who resists physiological urges to eat in order to lose weight or to maintain a reduced weight. Often, restrained eaters group foods into good and bad categories and prefer to know calorie content of a food before eating it.

An unrestrained eater usually goes by internal signals that he or she has eaten enough.

Both groups, restrained and unrestrained eaters, thought of the mini-packs as diet food. All of the study participants predicted they would want to eat less if the food was in the mini-packs as opposed to normal-size packs. But when it came to eating the food, the restrained eaters ate more from the mini-packs than did the unrestrained eaters. More often than not, the restrained eaters ate all of the mini-packs available to them whereas the unrestrained eaters ate some and left some.

So what is the appeal of a little bit of food in overpriced packages? My best guess is that restrained eaters gravitate to this type of packaging for “bad” or “forbidden” foods as part of an ongoing effort to eat less overall or to control their eating of less-than-desirable food. 

This study shows us that food packaged in mini-packs doesn’t really help anyone. It doesn’t fool anyone either. People have a basic need to feel there is enough food. That just can’t happen with food served up in mini-packs.

Food security comes from having a plentiful amount of normal food offered at predictable times throughout the day. Approaching meals and snacks in this way lets you pay attention, eat as much you want, and enjoy it.

References:

Scott ML, Nowlis SM, Mandel N, and Morales A: The effects of reduced food size and package size on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters. Journal of Consumer Research. 2008; 35(3):391-405.

Satter E: Hierarchy of food needs. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 2007; 39:187-188.

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